HOODED MERGANSER(Lophodytes cucullatus) – (See images below)
DESCRIPTION: The Hooded Merganser, as the English name implies, has a head hood that looks more like a crest, and this part of its anatomy is larger than its head. Both sexes have a crest, although of different colors. The male crest is black as are the head and neck, and the crest has a large white patch, that varies in size depending if it’s up or down. The breast and under parts are white, the flanks are brown and the back is black, as well as the bill. There’s a black bar on each side of the breast. The black wings have three fine white bars. The latter is serrated (sawbill) and the upper part is slightly down curved at the tip. The legs and feet are dark grey. Females have a reddish-brown crest and are grey-brown with a white belly. Their bill is yellowish with a dark tip, and their legs and feet are dark grey. The ducklings are dark brown with pale cheeks. This small diving duck is around 45 cm (18 in.) long.
VOICE: https://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Lophodytes-cucullatus
NAME: The name ‘Merganser’ is the contraction of ‘mergus’, which refers to an unspecified water bird, and ‘anser’, which means ‘goose’. The Latin genus name ‘Lophodytes’ means ‘crest’ and ‘diver’, and the Latin species name ‘cucullatus’ means ‘hooded’.
HABITAT: Forest wetlands.
DIET: The bill of this merganser is specialized for its diet, which consists of small fish but also insects, crustaceans and molluscs that it locates visually with its well-adapted eyesight.
NESTING: The hooded merganser builds its nest in a cavity, whether natural (tree) or man-made (box). The nest is usually high above ground, which means that the ducklings have to climb down from considerable heights to reach the ground, apparently without getting hurt. Females will sometimes lay their eggs in other hooded mergansers’ nests (intra-species brood parasitism), and a nest may end up containing more than three dozen eggs. An average of ten white round eggs are laid, which are incubated by the female. Ducklings can feed themselves but are protected by the mother.
DISTRIBUTION:  This duck is a North American species. The Canadian Maritimes are located at the northeastern limit of its breeding range, which covers the southeastern half of Canada, and the eastern part of the American midwest. During winter, it can be seen in the southern USA. It is also a year-round resident of southern British Columbia and Alberta, and of the eastern half of the USA. Some vagrants have reached Europe and even Hawaii.
CONSERVATION: The population of this small duck has remained relatively stable over the last decades, and might have increased in some places. It used to be over hunted, but no longer, although it is still being hunted. There are conservation programs in different regions to help increase their numbers. One factor that helps is an increase in the number of beaver ponds.
REFERENCES: https://www.borealbirds.org/bird/hooded-merganser
http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/hoodedmerganser.htm (New Hampshire PBS)
https://www.mba-aom.ca/jsp/toc.jsp (Maritimes Breeding Bird Atlas)

Hooded merganser male - photo by Ken Billington
Hooded merganser male – photo by Ken Billington
Hooded merganser female - Rideau River, Ottawa, ON - photo by D. Gordon E. Robertson
Hooded merganser female – Rideau River, Ottawa, ON – photo by D. Gordon E. Robertson