EUROPEAN ROBIN (Erithacus rubecula) – (See images below)
DESCRIPTION: The European Robin has a typical orange breast and face. The upper parts are brown and the underside is grey. The short bill is grey, and the legs are pinkish grey.  Sexes are similar. Juveniles have a yellow bill and a brown breast. This is around 5 inches (13 cm) long.
NAME: The name ‘Robin’ has a French origin and is a diminutive of ‘Robert’. Then the English attributed that name to many birds with a red breast (Choate). The Latin genus name ‘Erithacus’ is from Greek and refers to an unknown bird. As for the Latin species name rubecula, it means ‘red’. Several other species with an orange-red breast are called ‘Robin’, although they don’t always belong to the same family (see below).
HABITAT: Forests, parks and other urban areas.
DIET: Ground feeding on insects, worms and other invertebrates, also berries and seeds when available. Attracted to bird feeders.
NESTING: The nest is a shallow depression on the ground or a man-made structure that offers shelter. Around five creamy eggs are laid, which are incubated by the female. Both parents feed the young.
DISTRIBUTION: Breeding range is across Europe, and wintering range in northern Africa. It is a year-round resident in western Europe. Attempts were made to introduce this species in other areas but they were unsuccessful.
CONSERVATION: This robin is widespread and not considered at risk. Some issues are the killing of thousands of songbirds when they cross the Mediterranean to reach Africa for the winter, and another one is the use of pesticides.
NOTES: Males defend their territories aggressively, sometimes without provocation. The European robin is the National Bird of the United Kingdom.
SIMILAR SPECIES: American Robin – although this bird has the same name it belongs to a different family, the Thrushes. The European robin has now been grouped with the Old World Flycatchers.
REFERENCES: (Society for the Protection of Nature in Lebanon)

European Robin - Athens, Greece - May 13, 2014
European Robin – Athens, Greece – May 13, 2014 – © Roberta Palmer